COE  
College of Education
Texas Tech University
 
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RESEARCH


Evoutionary Attitudes and Literacy Survey

Understanding evolutionary theory, eschewing widely held misconceptions, and holding attitudes about its relevancy is far my complex than simply 'accepting the facts'. Indeed, in creating the most comprehensive survey to date, we verified a number of anticipated links (e.g., religious identity and political leanings), discovered others (e.g., openness to experience), and Sinsdisconfirmed still others (e.g., demographic associations). Our end goal was to create a psychometrically sound measurement tool with a validated structure (see Hawley et al., 2011) that could be used to assess regional variation and curricular effectiveness.

The survey is presently being translated into French (Dustin Eirdosh, University of Toliara, Madagascar, http://Evos.UniToliara.info; Dustin@MythicMinds.us) and Turkish (Dilek Sultan Kilic, Hacettepe University; dsultan@hacettepe.edu.tr)

Listen to our coverage on NPR: Story, my letter of correction

Validated structure and full survey: Hawley, P.H., *Short, S.D., *McCune, L.A., *Osman, M.R., & Little, T.D. (2011). What's the matter with Kansas?: The development and confirmation of the evolutionary attitudes and literacy survey. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 4, 117-132. (pdf)

Short form of EALS:
Short, S.D., & Hawley, P.H. (2012). Evolution attitudes and literacy survey (EALS): Development and validation of a short form. Evolution: Education and Outreach.

Application: O'Brien, D.T., Wilson, D.S., & Hawley, P.H. (2009). "Evolution for Everyone":A course that expands evolutionary theory beyond the biological sciences. Evolution Education Outreach, 2, 445-457. (pdf)

Click here and here for two MPA student posters
Click here for SPSP Poster, Jan 2011
Click here for SPSP Poster, Jan 2012

 

Mapping Miss USA Miss USA

Can evolutionary attitudes across the Uniited States be mapped? We believe they can, and we have started by employing GIS mapping techniques to data derived from the contenstants of the Miss USA pageant (2011) in response to the question, Should evolution be taught in schools? This work was presented at International GIS Day at KU and won 2nd place in the student competition.

See the award winning talk by Steve Short> Mapping Miss USA talk
See the award winning map> USA GIS map based on responses of Miss USA contestants

 

The Evolution of Personality and Individual Differences

From the cover: Capturing a scientific change in thinking about personality and individual differences that has been building over the past 15 years, this volume stands at an important moment in the development of psychology as a discipline. Rather than viewing individual differences as merely the raw material upon which selection operates, the contributing authors provide theories and empirical evidence which suggest that personality and individual differences are central to evolved psychological mechanisms and behavioral functioning. The book draws theoretical inspiration from life history theory, evolutionary genetics, molecular genetics, developmental psychology, personality psychology, and evolutionary psychology, while utilizing the theories of the "best and the brightest" international scientists working on this cutting edge paradigm shift.

Buss&HawleyRead related papers on Evolutionary Developmental Psychology, one theoretical framework for explaining the evoluton of individual differences:

Hawley, P.H. (2011). The evolution of adolescence and the adolescence of evolution: The coming of age of Humans and the theory about the forces that made them. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 307-316(pdf)

Hawley, P.H.,*Shorey, H.S., & *Alderman, P.M. (2009). Attachment correlates of resource control strategies: Possible origins of social dominance and interpersonal power differentials. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26(8), 1097–1118. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (2008). Competition and social and personality development: Some consequences of taking Darwin seriously. Anuario de Psicologia, 39, 193-208. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (2006). Evolution and personality: A new look at Machiavellianism. In D. Mroczek & T. Little (Eds.), Handbook of Personality Development. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (2003). Prosocial and coercive configurations of resource control in early adolescence: A case for the well-adapted Machiavellian. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49, 279-309. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (1999). The ontogenesis of social dominance: A strategy-based evolutionary perspective. Developmental Review, 19, 97-132. (pdf)


Aggression and Adaptation: The Bright Side to Bad Behavior (Aggression, social competence, status, Machiavellianism)
Traditional develAggrAdptopmental models align social competence primarily with prosocial behavior while holding aggression to be an indicator of social incompetence. Hawley's evolutionary model of social dominance (i.e., Resource Control Theory) in contrast does not bind aggression with social maladaptation. Our work demonstrates that individuals who are the most effective at competition in childhood and adolescence are both prosocial/sociable and highly aggressive. Yet, they suffer few of negative social repercussions or social skills deficits characteristic of the children who are purely aggressive; that is, these ‘bistrategics’ are well-liked, have quality friendships, and are morally astute and socially skilled. Our current projects are exploring in more depth forms and functions of aggression in college students, and their relationships to social success and well-being.

See our work featured in Nurture Shock.


Read related papers:
Hawley, P.H., & Geldhof, J.G. (2012).Preschoolers' social dominance, moral cognition, and moral behavior: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 112, 18-35. (pdf)

Ellis, del Giudice, Dishion, Figueredo, Gray, Griskevicius, Hawley, Jackson, Jacobs, Volk, & Wilson (in press). The evolutionary basis of risky adolescent behavior: Implications for science, policy, and practice. Developmental Psychology (pdf).

*Stump, K.N., *Ratliff, J.M., *Wu, Y.P., &  Hawley, P.H. (2009). Theories of social competence from the top-down to the bottom-up: A case for considering foundational human needs. In J.L. Matson (Ed.), Practitioners Guide to Social Behavior and Social Skills in Children (pp. 23-37). New York: Springer. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (2007). Social dominance in childhood and adolescence: Why social competence and aggression may go hand in hand. In P.H. Hawley, T.D Little, & P. Rodkin (Eds.).  Aggression and Adaptation: The Bright Side to Bad Behavior (pp. 1-29).  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates. (pdf)

Hawley, P. H., *Johnson, S. E., *Mize, J. A., & *McNamara, K. A. (2007). Physical attractiveness in preschoolers: Relationships with power, status, aggression and social skills. Journal of School Psychology, 45, 499-521. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H., *Card, N.A., & Little, T.D. (2007). The allure of a mean friend: Relationship quality and processes of aggressive adolescents with prosocial skills. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 22-32. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H., Little, T.D., & *Card, N.A. (2008). The myth of the alpha male: A new look at dominance-related beliefs and behaviors among adolescent males and females. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32, 76-88. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (2003). Strategies of control, aggression, and morality in preschoolers: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 85, 213-235. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H., & Vaughn, B.E. (2003). Aggression and adaptation: The bright side to bad behavior. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49, 239-244. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (2003). Prosocial and coercive configurations of resource control in early adolescence: A case for the well-adapted Machiavellian.  Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49, 279-309. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (2002). Social dominance and prosocial and coercive strategies of resource control in preschoolers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 167-176. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H., Little, T.D., & Pasupathi, M. (2002). Winning friends and influencing peers: Strategies of peer influence in late childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 466-473. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (1999). The ontogenesis of social dominance: A strategy-based evolutionary perspective. Developmental Review, 19, 97-132. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H., & Little, T.D. (1999). On winning some and losing some: A social relations approach to social dominance in toddlers. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 43, 185-214. (pdf)

Social Dominance and Forceful Submission Fantasies: Feminine Pathology or Power?

Assumptions about human sexuality (e.g., male dominance, female submission) generally lead to the exclusive focus on females when it comes to forceful submission fantasies common to romance novels ("bodice rippers"). Moreover, such fantasies have Clarkbeen linked to guilt or anxiety for a century (e.g., Freud, 1908). In contrast, we suggest that forceful submission invokes power rather than weakness to the fantasist because the fantasy object is provoked uncontrollably by the fantasist’s allure. This idea, however, has not been seriously tested (though it emerged in the 70s).

In keeping with our overall program, we seek to explore the associations of such fantasy to female power.Our first study shows that agentic, dominant women find forceful submission fantasies more appealing than do subordinate women. Additionally, dominant women ascribe a different meaning to the object of the fantasy than subordinate women ("warrior lover" versus "white knight"). Our current work involves dissecting such stories in great detail to see what drives appeal. In any case, we do not find evidence that there is anything "wrong" with women who enjoy this fantasy.

See our coverage in the Psychology Today: Vol 1 , Vol 2.
Read our paper: Hawley, PH, & Hensley, WA. (2009). Social dominance and forceful submission fantasies: Feminite pathology or power? Journal of Sex Research, 46, 568-585. (pdf)
See our latest work presented at the Society for Research on Adolescence, 2012 : SRA presentation

Early Childhood

Our most long running developmental project centers on the social functioning and socioemotional development sweetieof very young children. Primary focus is on the social dominance construct; what predicts it, how is it associated with social phenomena (e.g., being well-liked, respected), its stability over time, etc. This work has its roots in observational and quasi-experimental foundations set up in Berlin, Germany and has been represented in Discover Magazine and National Public Radio (pre-streaming). Funding has been generously supplied by the HF Guggenheim Foundation.

See our coverage in Discover Magazine.

Read related papers:
Hawley, P.H., & Geldhof, J.G. (2012).Preschoolers' social dominance, moral cognition, and moral behavior: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 112, 18-35. (pdf)

*Stump, K.N., *Ratliff, J.M., *Wu, Y.P., &  Hawley, P.H. (2009). Theories of social competence from the top-down to the bottom-up: A case for considering foundational human needs. In J.L. Matson (Ed.), Practitioners Guide to Social Behavior and Social Skills in Children (pp. 23-37). New York: Springer. (pdf)

*McNamara, K.A., *Selig, J.P., & Hawley, P.H. (2009). A typological approach to the study of parenting: Associations between maternal parenting patterns and child behaviour and social reception. Early Child Development and Care. (pdf) Print version: pdf

Hawley, P.H. (2003). Strategies of control, aggression, and morality in preschoolers: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 85, 213-235. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (2002). Social dominance and prosocial and coercive strategies of resource control in preschoolers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 167-176. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (1999). The ontogenesis of social dominance: A strategy-based evolutionary perspective. Developmental Review, 19, 97-132. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H., & Little, T.D. (1999). On winning some and losing some: A social relations approach to social dominance in toddlers. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 43, 185-214. (pdf)

Hawley, P.H. (1999). Strategies of play and winning the game: A reply to Brian Vaughn. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, 363-369. (pdf)